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Does ANYONE have a valid definition of “addiction”? | Anti-THR Lies and related topics Does ANYONE have a valid definition of “addiction”? | Anti-THR Lies and related topics Blog Post Does ANYONE have a valid definition of “addiction”? Posted on 7 October 2013 by Carl V Phillips | 28 Comments
Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions Zhou, Y., J.M. Benson, C. Irvin, H. Irshad, and Y.-S. Cheng (10-2008) 'Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions',
Young Using E-Cigarettes Smoke Too, Study Finds Young Using E-Cigarettes Smoke Too, Study Finds Newspaper Article By SABRINA TAVERNISE MARCH 6, 2014 Middle and high school students who used electronic cigarettes were more likely to smoke real cigarettes
Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells,
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives Foulds , et al. (2011), Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02751.x/abstract> accessed: 2014-02-19
Electronic Cigarettes and Secondhand Aerosol Electronic Cigarettes and Secondhand Aerosol Web Page Electronic (e-) Cigarettes and Secondhand Aerosol “If you are around somebody who is using e-cigarettes, you are breathing an aerosol of exhaled nicotine, ultra-fine particles, volatile organic compounds, and other toxins,” Dr. Stanton Glantz, Director for the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco.
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Journal Article ABSTRACT The medical community has long recognized that humans exhale volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several studies have quantified emissions of
FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) Statute An Act To protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco products, to amend title 5, United States Code,
E-cigarette use and indoor air quality: methodological limitations Response to Schober W et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Farsalinos & Voudris (no date), E-cigarette use and indoor air quality: methodological limitations Response to Schober W et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases
Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Journal Article Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (
Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake Siegmund , et al. (1999), Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake,
Peering through the Mist: Systematic Review of What the Chemistry of Contaminants in Electronic Cigarettes Tells Us about Health Risks Burstyn, I. (2014) 'Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks', BMC Public Health, 14: 18. <doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-18>
Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Journal Article Summary A recent report and press release issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device? Foulds & Veldheer (2011), Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device?, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03532.x/abstract> accessed: 2014-02-19
A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial Bullen , et al. (2010), Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial,
Nicotine: Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Nicotine: Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Webpage, Document Nicotine is listed as non-carcenogenic in the NIH Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB)
A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population-based medical intervention for smoking cessation Alpert , et al. (2013), A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population-based medical intervention for smoking cessation,
CASAA 2010 E-cigarette User Survey Results CASAA 2010 E-cigarette User Survey Results Web Page A Survey of over 200 users. ---------- answered question 2,217 skipped question What is your age group?
Scientists Find the Same Ecig “Toxins” In Regular Human Breath Scientists Find the Same Ecig “Toxins” In Regular Human Breath Blog Post All over the country, lawmakers are arguing that vaping should be banned in public areas because they fear it will put people at risk through secondhand exposure. Most recently, Los Angeles joined the campaign to outlaw public vaping, claiming that ecig vapor contains dangerous toxins like lead, nickel, nicotine, and chromium. After doing a little research, we found scientific evidence to refute lawmaker claims. It tur…
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment Dawkins , et al. (2013), Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12082/abstract> accessed: 2013-11-11
Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements Journal Article The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer.
ASH Fact Sheet 114- Nicotine and addiction ASH Fact Sheet 114- Nicotine and addiction Document What does the term addiction mean? Addiction is defined by the World Health Organization as “repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user is:
A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Journal Article Introduction: A considerable minority of adults remain addicted to smoking cigarettes despite substantial education and public health efforts. Nicotine replacement therapies have only modest long-term quit rates. The pulmonary route of nicotine delivery has advantages over other routes. However, there are regulatory and technical barriers to the development of pulmonary nicotine delivery de…
Two-Thirds of Americans OK With E-Cig Use In Their Personal Space, Survey Finds Two-Thirds of Americans OK With E-Cig Use In Their Personal Space, Survey Finds Newspaper Article First U.S. Study of Its Kind Finds 63 Percent of Adults Would Not Be Bothered By Use of E-Cigs; Majority Approve of ‘Vaping’ at Sporting Events; Men, Women Differ in Opinions
Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities Trehy , et al. (2011), Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities,
Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression Callaghan , et al. (2013), Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression,
Wake Up And Smell The Caffeine. It's A Powerful Drug Wake Up And Smell The Caffeine. It's A Powerful Drug Web Page Many of us can barely make it through the morning without first downing a cup of hot coffee. It's become such a big part of our daily rituals that few actually give much thought to what it is that we're putting in our bodies.
Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Are Present in Electronic Cigarette Cartomizer Fluid and Aerosol Williams , et al. (2013), Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Are Present in Electronic Cigarette Cartomizer Fluid and Aerosol,
Propylene glycol - Wikipedia Propylene glycol - Wikipedia Encylopedia Article Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2. It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform.
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air II. the Influence of Various Factors on the Activity of the Vapor Puck , et al. (1943), The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air Ii. the Influence of Various Factors on the Activity of the Vapor,
SMOKING EVERYWHERE, INC., Plaintiff, and SOTTERA, INC., d/b/a NJOY, Intervenor-Plaintiff, v. U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, et aI., Defendants. LEON (2010), SMOKING EVERYWHERE, INC., Plaintiff, and SOTTERA, INC., d/b/a NJOY, Intervenor-Plaintiff, v. U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, et aI., Defendants.,
Key Nicotine Findings.pdf Key Nicotine Findings.pdf Report Nicotine vs. tobacco smoke The main adverse effect of nicotine is addiction, which sustains tobacco use. Because most smokers are nicotine-dependent, they continue to expose themselves to toxicants from tobacco. Tobacco, not nicotine, is responsible for most of the adverse health effects.
Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Blog Post by Carl V Phillips Below is a letter to the editor and Igor Burstyn and I will be submitting to the journal that published this article 
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Noncombustible Tobacco Product Advertising: How Companies Are Selling the New Face of Tobacco Richardson , et al. (2013), Noncombustible Tobacco Product Advertising: How Companies Are Selling the New Face of Tobacco, <http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/12/29/ntr.ntt200> accessed: 2014-01-30
The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning Journal Article Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning.
Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects Wieslander , et al. (2001), Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects,
The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 Journal Article Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with aconcomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate.
‘Real-world’ effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study ‘Real-world’ effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study Journal Article Background and aims
Tobacco Harm Reduction: How Rational Public Policy Could Transform a Pandemic Sweanor, D., P. Alcabes, and E. Drucker (03-2007) 'Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic', International Journal of Drug Policy, 18: 70–74.
Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Journal Editorial Article Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them.
Free Market Solutions in Health: The case of nicotine Free Market Solutions in Health: The case of nicotine Report Summary: Many campaigners working in the field of public health believe that good health and free market capitalism are irreconcilable. They regard advertising, competition and the pursuit of profit as major causes of unhealthy consumption and view disfavoured industries as ‘disease vectors’. Accordingly, they support political action which limits commercial speech and restricts product development.
Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications? Farsalinos & Stimson (no date), Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications?, <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395914000644> accessed: 2014-03-28
Environmental Health Criteria Monographs (EHCs)- Formaldehyde (EHC 89, 1989) Environmental Health Criteria Monographs (EHCs)- Formaldehyde (EHC 89, 1989) Web Page 1.8 Effects on Man Formaldehyde has a pungent odour detectable at low concentrations, and its vapour and solutions are known skin and eye irritants in human beings. The common effects of formaldehyde exposure are various symptoms caused by irritation of the mucosa in the eyes and upper airways. In the non-industrial indoor environment, sensory reactions are typical effects, but there are large indiv…
Moving Past The e-Cigarette Wars: A Perspective From the Tobacco Control Trenches Moving Past The e-Cigarette Wars: A Perspective From the Tobacco Control Trenches Web Page 03/13/2014 There is a war going on. A war that was once contained within the tobacco control community has slowly leaked out into the public sphere. It’s over something small enough to hold in your hand but with the promise of ending generations of death and disease caused by tobacco. It’s an e-cigarette, and the research and policy debates are just beginning to heat up.
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Eissenberg , et al. (2010), A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects,
Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 Journal Article Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 ANN ARBOR—Smoking among teens in grades 8, 10 and 12 continued to decline in 2013—apositive trend since most smokers begin their habit in adolescence—according to the latest survey results from the nationwide Monitoring the Future study.
Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes Borland , et al. (2012), Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes,
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals Book Health Problems Related To Environmental Tobacco Smoke
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha Bertholon , et al. (2013), Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha,
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study Polosa , et al. (2011), Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study,
Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz. vapeawaremd.info (03-2014) 'Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz.',
Glaxo Memo Shows Drug Industry Lobbying on E-Cigarettes Glaxo Memo Shows Drug Industry Lobbying on E-Cigarettes Newspaper Article GlaxoSmithKline Plc is pushing for more stringent regulation of electronic cigarettes, which compete with its Nicorette gum and other smoking cessation products, according to e-mails from a company executive.
Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among us adolescents: A cross-sectional study Dutra LM & Glantz SA (2014), Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among us adolescents: A cross-sectional study, http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5488 accessed: 2014-03-06
FD&CA 21 USC Ch. 9 FD&CA 21 USC Ch. 9 Statute . . . . §321. Definitions; generally For the purposes of this chapter— (a)(1) The term “State”, except as used in the last sentence of section 372(a) of this title, means any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard Blog Post A new study published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the first to examine levels of chemicals in the ambient air of a real-life setting in the presence of electronic cigarette use.
Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal Polosa , et al. (2014), Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal,
Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart Web Page 31 August 2013 19:28
Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Article-Journal Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (commonly referred as e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor taken into lungs.
ASH Fact Sheet 891- Use of e-cigarettes in Great Britain among adults and young people (2013) ASH Fact Sheet 891- Use of e-cigarettes in Great Britain among adults and young people (2013) Document ASH has commissioned surveys on e-cigarette use starting in 2010 with a survey of smokers, followed in February 2012 and 2013 by surveys of all adults and in March 2013 with a survey of children aged 11 to 18.
New Study Shows that Thirdhand Smoke is 100 Times More Dilute than Secondhand Smoke New Study Shows that Thirdhand Smoke is 100 Times More Dilute than Secondhand Smoke Blog Post What may be the first investigation to actually measure the ambient levels of thirdhand smoke and compare them with levels of secondhand smoke, a new study
Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample Kozlowski , et al. (2003), Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample,
Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Journal Article Destructive distillation of solar heat transfer fluids was conducted to determine the types of pyrolytic products which might be formed in solar collectors under conditions of stagnation or malfunction.
Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991 Pirkle JL , et al. (1996), Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991,
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Schober , et al. (no date), Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air. I The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air. I Journal Article It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylo…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Report Nicotine itself has not been given a cancer rating, and it has not been analyzed as a carcinogen in its pure form. Although researchers call it the most biologically active ingredient in tobacco smoke and chewing tobacco, nicotine itself, according to research, does not cause the cell mutations.
Intravenous Nicotine and Caffeine: Subjective and Physiological Effects in Cocaine Abusers Garrett & Griffiths (2001), Intravenous Nicotine and Caffeine: Subjective and Physiological Effects in Cocaine Abusers, <http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/296/2/486> accessed: 2014-03-12
Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? Cahn & Siegel (2011), Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?,
The Electronic Cigarette: What Proportion of Smokers Have Tried It and How Many Use It Regularly? Kralikova, E., S. Kubatova, K. Truneckova, A. Kmetova, and P. Hajek (2012) 'The Electronic Cigarette: What Proportion of Smokers Have Tried It and How Many Use It Regularly?', Addiction, 107: 1528–1529.
Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention USP (2009), Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, <http://www.usp.org/usp-nf/key-issues/revision-excipient-monographs-related-deg-eg-adulteration> accessed: 2014-01-29
Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential thera…
The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems) heat a nicotine solution to generate vapor that is inhaled, without the combustion of tobacco and its toxic constituents. Use of e-cigarettes is increasing in the United States and around the world.
Three cases of attempted suicide by ingestion of nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes Three cases of attempted suicide by ingestion of nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes Conference Paper (Ingestion of up to 1500ml of e-liquid solution by a 36 y.o. adult shown to be non-fatal)
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Pellegrino , et al. (2012), Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM), <http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22913171/> accessed: 2014-02-17
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Journal Article Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Nicotine addiction and withdrawal Nicotine addiction and withdrawal Web Document . . . . Causes, incidence, and risk factors Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects.
Glycerin Purification Glycerin Purification Document What is Glycerin? Glycerin (Glycerol) is a clear, odorless, viscous liquid with a naturally sweet taste. It is derived from both natural and petrochemical feedstocks. Glycerin occurs in combined form (triglycerides) in animal fats and vegetable oils and is obtained from these fats and oils during transesterification, such as in biodiesel production.
Should criteria for drug dependence differ across drugs? Should criteria for drug dependence differ across drugs? Journal Article Aim To examine the pros and cons of using the same diagnostic criteria for dependence across all drugs versus using dependence criteria specific to the drug of interest.
AAPHP Statement re State Regulation of E-cigarettes AAPHP Statement re State Regulation of E-cigarettes Document The American Association of Public Health Physicians recommends the following State response to proposed legislation to ban or otherwise restrict the sale and use of nicotine vaporizers (commonly referred to as E-cigarettes or electronic cigarettes).
Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Journal Article Since the mid-1990s the position that “no amount of secondhand smoke is safe” has achieved hegemonic status in the field of public health. This has bolstered efforts in the tobacco control community to advocate for smoke-free legislation and a variety of countries around the world have implemented indoor smoking bans, with many others presently following suit. Increasingly, tobacco contro…
Unpublished E-Cig Use Experiences from Smokefree.gov Unpublished E-Cig Use Experiences from Smokefree.gov Forum Post From Webmaster redacted - Courtesy of your trusted federal government (via a FOIA request),
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs.
New study confirms that e-cigarettes have minimal quantities of nitrosamines – authors do not report it as a conclusion Farsalinos (2013), New study confirms that e-cigarettes have minimal quantities of nitrosamines – authors do not report it as a conclusion,
E-cigarettes full of puff as user numbers triple E-cigarettes full of puff as user numbers triple Newspaper Article Press Release: UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General Health, U.D. of, and H. Services (2006) 'The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General', Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 709
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
2012NitzkinHarmReduction Doc.pdf 2012NitzkinHarmReduction Doc.pdf Presentation Introduction This document is adapted from a presentation I gave to a joint committee meeting of the Oklahoma House and Senate, October 3, 2012.
Nicotine Oral Inhalation: Cautions: MedlinePlus Drug Information Nicotine Oral Inhalation: Cautions: MedlinePlus Drug Information Webpage-Report Webmaster note: The following refers to use of FDA approved oral nicotine inhalers, and as such may not apply, or only indirectly apply to vaporized oral nicotine inhalation.
Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study Polosa , et al. (2013), Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study,
Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an Internet survey Goniewicz , et al. (2013), Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an Internet survey,
Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine Sofuoglu , et al. (2012), Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine,
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and
More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the editor: Domino et al. (Aug 5 issue) suggest that nicotine obtained from the consumption of vegetables could complicate the interpretation of studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on the detection of nicotine or its metabolite cotinine. The crux of their argument was that typical levels of vegetable consumption could result in an exposure to nicotine equivalent to that from inhalation of …
Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence Journal Article ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality in western countries and it is important for smokers to stop as early as possible. Electronic cigarettes are a popular phenomenon of global proportion. Recent uncontrolled studies, reported that a certain number of smokers have quit using electronic cigarettes. This could hint a role for electronic cigarettes to be used for smoking ce…
Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Propylene Glycol and Dipropylene Glycol Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Propylene Glycol and Dipropylene Glycol Web Page The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) has completed the human health and environmental risk assessments for propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol and is issuing its risk management decision and tolerance reassessment. The risk assessments, which are summarized below, are based on the review of the required target database supporting the use patterns of currently registered products. …
Nicotine Addiction Nicotine Addiction Journal Article This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions.
Involuntary smoking in the restaurant workplace: A review of employee exposure and health effects Siegel M (1993), Involuntary smoking in the restaurant workplace: A review of employee exposure and health effects, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03510040094036> accessed: 2014-03-04
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Journal Article Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generat…
Use of a liquid nicotine delivery product to promote smoking cessation Use of a liquid nicotine delivery product to promote smoking cessation Journal Article Despite access to various pharmacotherapies and counseling support to aid cessation, smokers typically demonstrate quit rates below 50%. This report describes the results of a Phase 2a study exploring the efficacy of a liquid nicotine delivery system as an aid to smoking cessation assessed after 12 weeks of therapy. PMID: 20334673
Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence Dawkins , et al. (2009), Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence,
Virginia- “an E-Cigarette Does Not Fall within the Definition of ”smoke“ or ‘smoking’ for Purposes of § 15.2-2820” Cuccinelli II, K.T. (04-2010) 'Virginia- “an e-cigarette does not fall within the definition of ”smoke“ or ‘smoking’ for purposes of § 15.2-2820”',
Nicotine, the Wonder Drug? Nicotine, the Wonder Drug? Magazine Article This notorious stimulant may enhance learning and help treat Parkinson's, schizophrenia and other neurological diseases. By Dan Hurley Wednesday, February 05, 2014
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*
Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Web Page Monograph Revisions At the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USP has revised and strengthened its Glycerin Monograph to prevent future diethylene glycol (DEG) and ethylene glycol (EG) adulteration.
CAADE Board Resolution on Electronic Cigarettes CAADE Board Resolution on Electronic Cigarettes Web Page CAADE SUPPORTS ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES FOR TOBACCO CESSATION: Watch Father Jack's Testimony at the SB 648 hearing on April 17, 2013
Learning from Evidence in a Complex World Learning from Evidence in a Complex World Journal Article Policies to promote public health and welfare often fail or worsen the problems they are intended to solve. Evidence-based learning should prevent such policy resistance, but learning in complex systems is often weak and slow. Complexity hinders our ability to discover the delayed and distal impacts of interventions, generating unintended “side effects.”
Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking,
Government study finds toxic Roundup herbicide in 75 percent of air, rain samples Government study finds toxic Roundup herbicide in 75 percent of air, rain samples Web Page Tuesday, March 11, 2014 by: Jonathan Benson, staff writer
How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer Mayer (2013), How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer,
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Ground-breaking study supports e-cigarettes' superiority over nicotine patches | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) ACSH (2013), Ground-breaking study supports e-cigarettes' superiority over nicotine patches | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH),
CDC Online Newsroom - E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 CDC (2013), CDC Online Newsroom | Press Release | E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012,
Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide Vardavas , et al. (2012), Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide,
Draft Summary Record of the Second Meeting of the Fifth Bureau Conference of the Parties to the WHO FCTC WHO (2013), Draft Summary Record of the Second Meeting of the Fifth Bureau Conference of the Parties to the WHO FCTC, <http://www.clivebates.com/documents/WHObureausummary.pdf> accessed: 2014-04-21
Ecigarette mist harmless, inhaled or exhaled Ecigarette mist harmless, inhaled or exhaled Report Background Electronic cigarettes, without tobacco, flame or smoke, claim to be cigarette substitutes and to deliver nicotine safely, without smoke toxicants. Are these claims justified?
Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study Caponnetto , et al. (2013), Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study,
Evidence against a gateway from smokeless tobacco use to smoking Evidence against a gateway from smokeless tobacco use to smoking Journal Article INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco (ST) use by young people induces them to become smokers, but direct evidence is lacking.
Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality? G. Romagna MD , et al. (2012), Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality?,
Psychosocial Withdrawal Characteristics of Nicotine Compared with Alcohol and Caffeine Psychosocial Withdrawal Characteristics of Nicotine Compared with Alcohol and Caffeine Journal Article The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal.
FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes - Press Announcement FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes - Press Announcement Press Announcement The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced that a laboratory analysis of electronic cigarette samples has found that they contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze.
Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices Farsalinos , et al. (2014), Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices,
RainMan's 2011-2012 CDC NYTS Survey Data RainMan's 2011-2012 CDC NYTS Survey Data Note: Data is preliminary, needs verification but believed to be accurate. Link to original CDC Datasets Related: CDC Online Newsroom - E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 category-youth cdc e-cigarette folder-e-cigs gateway incomplete_information-_bias leans-positive nicotine survey
RainMan's Commentary on the 24 Apr 2014 FDA Deeming Regulations RainMan's Commentary on the 24 Apr 2014 FDA Deeming Regulations Since I started vaping 2 years ago I've collected this research, and to see most of it being ignored is frustrating. I'm 62 but I'm past ready for revolution. From what I know now I think the sh
Awareness and Ever-Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2010–2011 Awareness and Ever-Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2010–2011 Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010–2011.
Nicotine and Health Nicotine and Health Blog Post This year, how about making a truly meaningful, life-altering New Year’s resolution? If you’re one of 44 million American smokers, we have one for you: Try separating the smoke from your nicotine fix. Doing so will save your life.
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction:
The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the Editor: The presence of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in the body fluids of nonsmokers is usually taken as evidence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 800 people, both smokers and nonsmokers, all of whom tested positive for urinary cotinine1. There is considerable evidence that nicotine is present in certain human foods, especiall…
Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function Flouris , et al. (2013), Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function, <http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/08958378.2012.758197> accessed: 2014-02-20
The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health Benjamin Mason Meier, and Donna Shelley (10-2006) 'The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health', Public Health Reports, 121: 494 – 500,
Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of "Vapers" Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of
Chapter 12 - Cognitive, affective and motivational effects of smoking Chapter 12 - Cognitive, affective and motivational effects of smoking Book Section Publisher Summary This chapter discusses cognitive, affective, and motivational effects of smoking. The individual differences at genetic, personality, affective, and cognitive levels relate to the development of dependence and influence the effects of pharmacological and psychological interventions. It is found that smokers obtain benefits from nicotine, relative to their functioning when acutely abstinent,…
Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration Robertson , et al. (1947), Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration,
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review Farsalinos & Polosa (2014), Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review,
Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of e-cigarette vapor on cultured cardiac cells: a new study ecigarette-research.com (2013), Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of e-cigarette vapor on cultured cardiac cells: a new study, <http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/135-evaluation-of-the-cytotoxic> accessed: 2014-04-09
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke.
Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Manuscript Summary * Five of the volatile organic compounds detected by various studies in electronic cigarette vapor have also been found in human breath emissions (acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, formaldehyde and isoprene).
Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation Journal Article In recent years, a new tobacco ‘endgame’ has been proposed: the denial of tobacco sale to any citizen born after a certain year, thus creating new tobacco-free generations. The proposal would not directly affect current smokers, but would impose a restriction on potential future generations of smokers. This paper examines some key legal and ethical issues raised by this proposal, critically assessing how a…
Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments Phillips (2009), Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments,
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review Pepper & Brewer (2013), Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review,
Health effects of Theatrical Haze Health effects of Theatrical Haze Document The major findings of this study are summarized below: • No evidence of serious health effects was found to be associated with exposure to any of the theatrical effects evaluated in this study.
Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments Journal Article Tobacco use is a global pandemic that poses a substantial and costly health burden.
The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition.
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Eissenberg , et al. (2010), A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects,
E-Cigarettes May Not Be Gateway to Smoking: Study E-Cigarettes May Not Be Gateway to Smoking: Study Magazine Article E-cigarettes don't appear to entice teens to try smoking tobacco, a new study says.
Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Article OVERALL SUMMARY While most discussion of e-cigarettes among health authorities has concentrated on the product itself, its potential toxicity and use of e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, the e- cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Moreover, e-cigarette advertising is on television and radio in many countries that have long-banne…
How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? Journal Article OBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with
The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies Lucy M Shieffelbien & Wayne A Temple (2013), The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies,
Third-hand smoking: indoor measurements of concentration and sizes of cigarette smoke particles after resuspension Becquemin , et al. (2010), Third-hand smoking: indoor measurements of concentration and sizes of cigarette smoke particles after resuspension,
Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Kim & Shin (2013), Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry,
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes.
Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Journal Editorial Article Allow them, but research and monitoring are needed so that the risks can be regulated.
Nicotine: Medication or Scourge? Nicotine: Medication or Scourge? Book Section The majority of people in most cultures uses psychoactive drugs. In our society only three such substances are legal and freely available: caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. One of these, nicotine, is an endangered species as the laws against its use multiply in the United States.
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Journal Article BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries.
Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study Caponnetto , et al. (2013), Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study,
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition Dramatically Increases the Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine in Rats Guillem , et al. (2005), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition Dramatically Increases the Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine in Rats,
AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS AT RESURRECTION CATHOLIC SCHOOL IN BOYLE HEIGHTS Polidori & Fine (2012), AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS AT RESURRECTION CATHOLIC SCHOOL IN BOYLE HEIGHTS, <http://162.80.26.25/tao/AQ-Reports/Resurrection_Catholic_School_Study.pdf> accessed: 2014-02-22
The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Document Summary MORTALITY RISKS AND CANCER RISKS VARY GREATLY BY PRODUCT
Air Sanitizers- US EPA Air Sanitizers- US EPA Document Air Sanitizers DIS/TSS-11 / Sep. 3, 1980 EFFICACY DATA AND LABELING REQUIREMENTS: Air Sanitizers These requirements apply to products with label claims for the treatment of air to reduce the numbers of airborne microorganisms.

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