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A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population-based medical intervention for smoking cessation Journal Article Objective To examine the population effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), either with or without professional counselling, and provide evidence needed to better inform healthcare coverage decisions.
A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Journal Article Introduction: A considerable minority of adults remain addicted to smoking cigarettes despite substantial education and public health efforts. Nicotine replacement therapies have only modest long-term quit rates. The pulmonary route of nicotine delivery has advantages over other routes. However, there are regulatory and technical barriers to the development of pulmonary nicotine delivery de…
Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities Journal Article The objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the liquid used to fill the cartridges, and from smoke generated using the electronic cigarette devices. An HPLC method was validated for the determination.
ASH Fact Sheet 891- Use of e-cigarettes in Great Britain among adults and young people (2013) Document ASH has commissioned surveys on e-cigarette use starting in 2010 with a survey of smokers, followed in February 2012 and 2013 by surveys of all adults and in March 2013 with a survey of children aged 11 to 18.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Awareness and Ever-Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2010–2011 Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010–2011.
Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Article OVERALL SUMMARY While most discussion of e-cigarettes among health authorities has concentrated on the product itself, its potential toxicity and use of e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, the e- cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Moreover, e-cigarette advertising is on television and radio in many countries that have long-banne…
CASAA 2010 E-cigarette User Survey Results Web Page A Survey of over 200 users. ---------- answered question 2,217 skipped question What is your age group? Under 18 18 - 21 22 - 25 26 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59
Chapter 12 - Cognitive, affective and motivational effects of smoking Book Section Publisher Summary This chapter discusses cognitive, affective, and motivational effects of smoking. The individual differences at genetic, personality, affective, and cognitive levels relate to the development of dependence and influence the effects of pharmacological and psychological interventions. It is found that smokers obtain benefits from nicotine, relative to their functioning when acutely abstinent,…
Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device? Journal Article Smoked tobacco products are the only legal products that kill half their consumers, and some of those around them, when used as intended. More than 17 billion cigarettes are smoked world-wide every day, and that number continues to increase [1]. People smoke for the psychoactive and addictive effects of nicotine, but are killed by other toxins in the smoke [2,3].
Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz. Analytical Observation It has become apparent that many legislators and public health experts are relying on Background Paper On E-Cigarettes prepared for the World Health Organization by Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz, and
Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such…
E-cigarettes full of puff as user numbers triple Newspaper Article Press Release: UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies The number of people using electronic cigarettes has tripled from 700,000 to 2.1m in the past three years, new figures reveal.
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial Journal Article Objectives To measure the short-term effects of an electronic nicotine delivery device (“e cigarette”,
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study Journal Article Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary.
Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these produ…
Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarette) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine that may aid smokers to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption. Research on e-Cigarettes is urgently needed to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are evidence based. Here we assessed long-term effectiveness and tolerability of …
Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is …
Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence Journal Article ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality in western countries and it is important for smokers to stop as early as possible. Electronic cigarettes are a popular phenomenon of global proportion. Recent uncontrolled studies, reported that a certain number of smokers have quit using electronic cigarettes. This could hint a role for electronic cigarettes to be used for smoking ce…
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have experienced a rapid growth in popularity but little is known about how they are used.
Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among us adolescents: A cross-sectional study Journal Article Importance Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among adolescents, and e-cigarettes are currently unregulated.Objective To examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking.
Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? Journal Article Abstract The issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use.
Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Journal Editorial Article Allow them, but research and monitoring are needed so that the risks can be regulated. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigarette shaped products that vaporise nicotine in ways that enable it to be inhaled, have become increasingly popular in the past few years.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Journal Editorial Article Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them.
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Journal Article The “electronic (e-)cigarette” generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking, and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution, until its effectiveness in helping smokers is clarified, and the possible harm evaluated.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized ECs were used, though experienced
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review Journal Article Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘elec…
Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of "Vapers" Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are alternative-to-smoking nicotine delivery devices; consumers (commonly called vapers) use them in order to reduce or completely substitute smoking. The European Commission has released a proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive that might reduce availability of nicotine-containin…
Ground-breaking study supports e-cigarettes' superiority over nicotine patches | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Magazine Article In the first head-to-head comparison between e-cigarettes and nicotine patches (NRT) for helping smokers quit, a significant win for e-cigarettes was found in every measured parameter. Led by Dr. Chris Bullen of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, the researchers recruited 657 smokers who said that they wanted to quit. They were randomized into…
How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? Journal Article OBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded.
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*1,2, Suzaynn Schick 3, Mohamad Sleiman4, and Prue Talbot
Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study Journal Article Abstract: Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been…
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased dramatically. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices deliver an aerosol comprised usually of water, propylene glycol and/or glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. Scant research exists to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such devices, and only one quantitative survey of European users (N = 81) has been published. …
Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample Journal Article AIMS: To evaluate non-causal and causal patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and cigarette use; to assess the prevalence of “non-gateway” and possible “gateway” patterns of SLT use.
Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices Journal Article A wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking.
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Journal Article Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an Internet survey Journal Article INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: As the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) increases, it is becoming important to find out more about the characteristics of e-cigarette users, why and how they use the product and whether e-cigarettes are used exclusively or in combination with conventional cigarettes. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns and effe…
The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Document Summary MORTALITY RISKS AND CANCER RISKS VARY GREATLY BY PRODUCT Cigarettes and smoking tobacco are the most deadly recreation products on shop shelves. Nicotine has been widely used as a medicine since 1984 and is safe at the doses used in medicines. Nicotine products do not cause lung or other cancers, nor lung or heart disease. Tobacco smoking, in contrast, is the main cause of lung cancer a…
The Electronic Cigarette: What Proportion of Smokers Have Tried It and How Many Use It Regularly? Article-Journal We read with interest the article by Wagener et al. , which calls for a balanced analysis of the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes (
The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition.
The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health Journal Editorial Article Tobacco harm reduction as a human right Approximately one-quarter of all lifelong smokers will die in middle age (between 35 and 69) as a result of smoking and the authors of this 2006 paper (PDF) urge tobacco harm reduction to be viewed as a human right.
The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 Journal Article Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with aconcomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate.
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Tobacco Harm Reduction: How Rational Public Policy Could Transform a Pandemic Article-Journal Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Unpublished E-Cig Use Experiences from Smokefree.gov Forum Post From Webmaster redacted - Courtesy of your trusted federal government (via a FOIA request), here are hundreds of quit stories submitted to Smokefree.gov that were later deleted for not being “science based.”
Use of a liquid nicotine delivery product to promote smoking cessation Journal Article Despite access to various pharmacotherapies and counseling support to aid cessation, smokers typically demonstrate quit rates below 50%. This report describes the results of a Phase 2a study exploring the efficacy of a liquid nicotine delivery system as an aid to smoking cessation assessed after 12 weeks of therapy. PMID: 20334673
‘Real-world’ effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study Journal Article Background and aims There is a need for more evidence on the ‘real-world’ effectiveness of commonly used aids to smoking cessation from population-level studies.