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2012NitzkinHarmReduction Doc.pdf Presentation Introduction This document is adapted from a presentation I gave to a joint committee meeting of the Oklahoma House and Senate, October 3, 2012. The first five pages present my remarks and images of my slides. The next seven pages present brief narratives relative to the most common objections raised by opponents of Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR), with selected bibliographic references.
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function Journal Article Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. Objective:
Air Sanitizers- US EPA Document Air Sanitizers DIS/TSS-11 / Sep. 3, 1980 EFFICACY DATA AND LABELING REQUIREMENTS: Air Sanitizers These requirements apply to products with label claims for the treatment of air to reduce the numbers of airborne microorganisms.
Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities Journal Article The objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the liquid used to fill the cartridges, and from smoke generated using the electronic cigarette devices. An HPLC method was validated for the determination.
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyzed 20 models of 10 of the most popular brands of refill liquids, using gas and liquid chromatography.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Article OVERALL SUMMARY While most discussion of e-cigarettes among health authorities has concentrated on the product itself, its potential toxicity and use of e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, the e- cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Moreover, e-cigarette advertising is on television and radio in many countries that have long-banne…
Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality? Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-CIG) have been marketed as a safer alternative habit to tobacco smoking. We have developed a group of research protocols to evaluate the effects of e-CIG on human health, called ClearStream. No studies have adequately evaluated the effects of e-CIG use on the release of chemicals to the environment…
Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Journal Article Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (
Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device? Journal Article Smoked tobacco products are the only legal products that kill half their consumers, and some of those around them, when used as intended. More than 17 billion cigarettes are smoked world-wide every day, and that number continues to increase [1]. People smoke for the psychoactive and addictive effects of nicotine, but are killed by other toxins in the smoke [2,3].
Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha Journal Article In previous studies of the smoke from regular cigarettes and water pipes, we measured aerosol particle sizes in three streams; S1, inhaled by the smoker, S2, released by the device itself and
Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz. Analytical Observation It has become apparent that many legislators and public health experts are relying on Background Paper On E-Cigarettes prepared for the World Health Organization by Rachel Grana, Neal Benowitz, and
Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such…
Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake Journal Article This investigation was initiated as a result of proposals in the literature that dietary nicotine intake could contribute to the level of nicotine metabolites in biological fluids such as salivary cotinine concentration.
Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Journal Article Highlights TSNAsTSNAsTSNA Abstract A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
E-cigarette use and indoor air quality: methodological limitations Response to Schober W et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Journal Article By Dr Farsalinos
E-cigarettes full of puff as user numbers triple Newspaper Article Press Release: UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies The number of people using electronic cigarettes has tripled from 700,000 to 2.1m in the past three years, new figures reveal.
Ecigarette mist harmless, inhaled or exhaled Report Background Electronic cigarettes, without tobacco, flame or smoke, claim to be cigarette substitutes and to deliver nicotine safely, without smoke toxicants. Are these claims justified? Aim
Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these produ…
Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarette) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine that may aid smokers to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption. Research on e-Cigarettes is urgently needed to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are evidence based. Here we assessed long-term effectiveness and tolerability of …
Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes Journal Article Background This study explored the value of providing information in a Fact Sheet to correct misperceptions about the relative harmfulness of nicotine replacement products (NRT) and smokeless tobacco (ST), when compared to cigarette smoking.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have experienced a rapid growth in popularity but little is known about how they are used.
Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? Journal Article Abstract The issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use.
Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Journal Editorial Article Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them.
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Journal Article The “electronic (e-)cigarette” generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking, and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution, until its effectiveness in helping smokers is clarified, and the possible harm evaluated.
Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart Web Page 31 August 2013 19:28 Electronic cigarette use does not cause any immediate adverse effects on coronary circulation and oxygen supply to the heart, according to a new study
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Environmental Health Criteria Monographs (EHCs)- Formaldehyde (EHC 89, 1989) Web Page 1.8 Effects on Man Formaldehyde has a pungent odour detectable at low concentrations, and its vapour and solutions are known skin and eye irritants in human beings. The common effects of formaldehyde exposure are various symptoms caused by irritation of the mucosa in the eyes and upper airways. In the non-industrial indoor environment, sensory reactions are typical effects, but there are large indiv…
Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of e-cigarette vapor on cultured cardiac cells: a new study Web Page Wednesday, 16 October 2013 12:20 A new study on electronic cigarettes was published today in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Researchers from Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center in Greece and Abich Toxicological Laboratory in Italy, lead by principle investigator Dr Konstantinos Farsalinos evaluated the cytotoxic potential of 20 different e-cigarette liq…
Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects Journal Article OBJECTIVES— Propylene glycol (PG) (1-2 propanediol; CAS No 57-55-6) is a low toxicity compound widely used as a food additive, in pharmaceutical preparations, in cosmetics, and in the workplace—for example, water based paints, de-icing fluids, and cooling liquids. Exposure to
Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991 Journal Article Objective.  To estimate the extent of exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke and the contribution of the home and workplace environment to environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) Statute An Act To protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco products, to amend title 5, United States Code, to make certain modifications in the Thrift Savings Plan, the Civil Service Retirement System, and the Federal Employees’ Retirement System, and for other purposes.
FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes - Press Announcement Press Announcement The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced that a laboratory analysis of electronic cigarette samples has found that they contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze.
Glycerin Purification Document What is Glycerin? Glycerin (Glycerol) is a clear, odorless, viscous liquid with a naturally sweet taste. It is derived from both natural and petrochemical feedstocks. Glycerin occurs in combined form (triglycerides) in animal fats and vegetable oils and is obtained from these fats and oils during transesterification, such as in biodiesel production.
Health effects of Theatrical Haze Document The major findings of this study are summarized below: • No evidence of serious health effects was found to be associated with exposure to any of the theatrical effects evaluated in this study. • Peak exposures to elevated localized air concentrations following a release of glycol smoke are associated with increased reporting of respiratory, throat, and nasal symptoms, and findings of vocal cord inflammation.
Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Journal Article Destructive distillation of solar heat transfer fluids was conducted to determine the types of pyrolytic products which might be formed in solar collectors under conditions of stagnation or malfunction.
How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer Journal Article The discrepancy between the 60-mg dose and published cases of nicotine intoxication has been noted previously (Matsushima et al. 1995; Metzler et al. 2005), but nonetheless, this value is still accepted without scrutiny and taken as the basis for worldwide safety regulations of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products. Nicoti…
Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Journal Article ABSTRACT The medical community has long recognized that humans exhale volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several studies have quantified emissions of VOCs from human breath, with values ranging widely due to variation between and within individuals. The authors have measured human breath concentrations of isoprene and pentane.
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*1,2, Suzaynn Schick 3, Mohamad Sleiman4, and Prue Talbot
Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking Journal Article Purpose: Cigarette smoking causes an acute elevation in carboxyhemoglobin levels (HbCO) and has immediate adverse effects on coronary circulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of electronic cigarette (
Involuntary smoking in the restaurant workplace: A review of employee exposure and health effects Journal Article Objective.\\  To determine the relative exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for bar and restaurant employees compared with office employees and with nonsmokers exposed in the home (part 1) and to determine whether this exposure is contributing to an elevated lung cancer risk in these employees (part 2).
Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Report Nicotine itself has not been given a cancer rating, and it has not been analyzed as a carcinogen in its pure form. Although researchers call it the most biologically active ingredient in tobacco smoke and chewing tobacco, nicotine itself, according to research, does not cause the cell mutations.
Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Web Page Monograph Revisions At the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USP has revised and strengthened its Glycerin Monograph to prevent future diethylene glycol (DEG) and ethylene glycol (EG) adulteration.
Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Document Revised Monographs Based on a request from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2009, USP has revised and strengthened its monographs for five pharmaceutical excipients used in drug formulations-Propylene Glycol
Key Nicotine Findings.pdf Report Nicotine vs. tobacco smoke The main adverse effect of nicotine is addiction, which sustains tobacco use. Because most smokers are nicotine-dependent, they continue to expose themselves to toxicants from tobacco. Tobacco, not nicotine, is responsible for most of the adverse health effects.
Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Journal Article Since the mid-1990s the position that “no amount of secondhand smoke is safe” has achieved hegemonic status in the field of public health. This has bolstered efforts in the tobacco control community to advocate for smoke-free legislation and a variety of countries around the world have implemented indoor smoking bans, with many others presently following suit. Increasingly, tobacco contro…
Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Blog Post by Carl V Phillips Below is a letter to the editor and Igor Burstyn and I will be submitting to the journal that published this article -- “Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers” by Schober W, Szendrei K, Matzen W, Osiander-Fuchs H, Heitmann D, Schettgen T, Jörres RA, Fromme H – which made alarmist claims about the content of exh…
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Journal Article Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generat…
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs. In spite of extensive research on the health effects of tobacco smoking, the substances in tobacco smoke exerting these negative health effects are not completely known. Nicotine is the substance giving the subjective pleasure of smoking as well as inducing addiction.
More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the editor: Domino et al. (Aug 5 issue) suggest that nicotine obtained from the consumption of vegetables could complicate the interpretation of studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on the detection of nicotine or its metabolite cotinine. The crux of their argument was that typical levels of vegetable consumption could result in an exposure to nicotine equivalent to that from inhalation of …
Moving Past The e-Cigarette Wars: A Perspective From the Tobacco Control Trenches Web Page 03/13/2014 There is a war going on. A war that was once contained within the tobacco control community has slowly leaked out into the public sphere. It’s over something small enough to hold in your hand but with the promise of ending generations of death and disease caused by tobacco. It’s an e-cigarette, and the research and policy debates are just beginning to heat up.
New study confirms that e-cigarettes have minimal quantities of nitrosamines – authors do not report it as a conclusion Blog Post A study published 3 months ago in Journal of Chromatography confirms that e-cigarette liquids have minimal quantities of cancer-causing nitrosamines, however, authors failed to mention the comparable levels detected in tobacco cigarettes.
New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard Blog Post A new study published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the first to examine levels of chemicals in the ambient air of a real-life setting in the presence of electronic cigarette use.
Nicotine and Health Blog Post This year, how about making a truly meaningful, life-altering New Year’s resolution? If you’re one of 44 million American smokers, we have one for you: Try separating the smoke from your nicotine fix. Doing so will save your life.
Nicotine Oral Inhalation: Cautions: MedlinePlus Drug Information Webpage-Report Webmaster note: The following refers to use of FDA approved oral nicotine inhalers, and as such may not apply, or only indirectly apply to vaporized oral nicotine inhalation.
Nicotine, the Wonder Drug? Magazine Article This notorious stimulant may enhance learning and help treat Parkinson's, schizophrenia and other neurological diseases. By Dan Hurley Wednesday, February 05, 2014 Nicotine delivery devices like the patch could offer surprising benefits to people diagnosed with certain neurological disorders.
Nicotine: Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Webpage, Document Nicotine is listed as non-carcenogenic in the NIH Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Rats and Mice: Cancer Test Summary Rat Target Sites Mouse Target Sites
Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions Article-Journal Showering produces respirable droplets that may serve to deposit pollutants such as trihalomethane decontamination products, heavy metals, inorganic salts, microbes, or cyanoacterial toxins within the respiratory tract.
Peering through the Mist: Systematic Review of What the Chemistry of Contaminants in Electronic Cigarettes Tells Us about Health Risks Article-Journal Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally recognized as a safer alternative to combusted tobacco products, but there are conflicting claims about the degree to which these products warrant concern for the health of the vapers (e-cigarette users). This paper reviews available data on chemistry of aerosols and liquids of elec…
Propylene glycol - Wikipedia Encylopedia Article Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2. It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform.
Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine Journal Article The ratio of nicotine metabolites (trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC) to cotinine) correlates with nicotine clearance. In previous studies, high nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) predicted poor outcomes for smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch. The underlying mechanisms that associate NMR with treatment outcomes have not been fully elucidated.
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Propylene Glycol and Dipropylene Glycol Web Page The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) has completed the human health and environmental risk assessments for propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol and is issuing its risk management decision and tolerance reassessment. The risk assessments, which are summarized below, are based on the review of the required target database supporting the use patterns of currently registered products. …
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review Journal Article Abstract Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them.
Scientists Find the Same Ecig “Toxins” In Regular Human Breath Blog Post All over the country, lawmakers are arguing that vaping should be banned in public areas because they fear it will put people at risk through secondhand exposure. Most recently, Los Angeles joined the campaign to outlaw public vaping, claiming that ecig vapor contains dangerous toxins like lead, nickel, nicotine, and chromium. After doing a little research, we found scientific evidence to refute lawmaker claims. It tur…
Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Article-Journal Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (commonly referred as e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor taken into lungs.
Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide Journal Article Background:   Debate exists over the scientific evidence for claims that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have no health-related ramifications. This study aimed to assess whether using an e-cigarette for 5 min has an impact on the pulmonary function tests and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) of healthy adult smokers.
Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Journal Article Summary A recent report and press release issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assert that NJOY e-cigarette cartridges contain harmful levels of carcinogens and toxic chemicals. It was further implied that these chemicals are not found in other FDA-approved nicotine-containing products. Subsequently, a technical review and scientific analysis of the FDA’s report was performed by scientists …
Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration Journal Article With a view to determining the safety of employing the vapors of propylene glycol and triethylene glycol in atmospheres inhabited by human beings, monkeys and rats were exposed continuously to high concentrations of these vapors for periods of 12 to 18 months. Equal numbers of control animals were maintained under physically similar condit…
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air II. the Influence of Various Factors on the Activity of the Vapor Journal Article A study of the conditions which affect the bactericidal action of propylene glycol vapor on air-suspended microorganisms has been carried out. The killing process was found to be more effective when both the total number of air-borne droplets and the number of organisms in the bacterial suspension are small. A temperature belo…
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air. I Journal Article It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylo…
The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Document Summary MORTALITY RISKS AND CANCER RISKS VARY GREATLY BY PRODUCT Cigarettes and smoking tobacco are the most deadly recreation products on shop shelves. Nicotine has been widely used as a medicine since 1984 and is safe at the doses used in medicines. Nicotine products do not cause lung or other cancers, nor lung or heart disease. Tobacco smoking, in contrast, is the main cause of lung cancer a…
The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health Journal Editorial Article Tobacco harm reduction as a human right Approximately one-quarter of all lifelong smokers will die in middle age (between 35 and 69) as a result of smoking and the authors of this 2006 paper (PDF) urge tobacco harm reduction to be viewed as a human right.
The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General Report 6 Major Conclusions of the 2006 Surgeon General Report Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of disease and death. In this report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to
The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies Conference Paper Objective: A review of calls to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre to determine if there is an increased incidence of children ingesting oral nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs).
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the Editor: The presence of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in the body fluids of nonsmokers is usually taken as evidence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 800 people, both smokers and nonsmokers, all of whom tested positive for urinary cotinine1. There is considerable evidence that nicotine is present in certain human foods, especiall…
The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 Journal Article Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with aconcomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate.
Third-hand smoking: indoor measurements of concentration and sizes of cigarette smoke particles after resuspension Journal Letter In a previous study1 of ‘secondhand’ cigarette smoke, we showed that 75% of the particles added to indoor air were of ultrafine sizes and had a half-life in air of 18 minutes at 25°C. These particles after their deposition on household surfaces could be later put back in suspension and constitute a toxic ‘thirdhand’
Three cases of attempted suicide by ingestion of nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes Conference Paper (Ingestion of up to 1500ml of e-liquid solution by a 36 y.o. adult shown to be non-fatal) Objective: We report three cases (in two persons) concerning deliberate ingestion in attempted suicide. The Poisons Information Center in Denmark is experiencing an increasing number of calls concerning intake of nicotine liquid used for electronic cigarettes. Most cases concern accidental intake in…
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Tobacco Harm Reduction: How Rational Public Policy Could Transform a Pandemic Article-Journal Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Manuscript Summary * Five of the volatile organic compounds detected by various studies in electronic cigarette vapor have also been found in human breath emissions (acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, formaldehyde and isoprene).
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Journal Article Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (
Wake Up And Smell The Caffeine. It's A Powerful Drug Web Page Many of us can barely make it through the morning without first downing a cup of hot coffee. It's become such a big part of our daily rituals that few actually give much thought to what it is that we're putting in our bodies.