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tag:category-health_and_safety [E-Cigarette Research]

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2012NitzkinHarmReduction Doc.pdf Presentation Introduction This document is adapted from a presentation I gave to a joint committee meeting of the Oklahoma House and Senate, October 3, 2012.
Eissenberg , et al. (2010), A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects,
Eissenberg , et al. (2010), A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects,
A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Flouris , et al. (2013), Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function, <http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/08958378.2012.758197> accessed: 2014-02-20
Air Sanitizers- US EPA Document Air Sanitizers DIS/TSS-11 / Sep. 3, 1980 EFFICACY DATA AND LABELING REQUIREMENTS: Air Sanitizers These requirements apply to products with label claims for the treatment of air to reduce the numbers of airborne microorganisms.
Trehy , et al. (2011), Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities,
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Article OVERALL SUMMARY While most discussion of e-cigarettes among health authorities has concentrated on the product itself, its potential toxicity and use of e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, the e- cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Moreover, e-cigarette advertising is on television and radio in many countries that have long-banne…
G. Romagna MD , et al. (2012), Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality?,
Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Journal Article Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (
Foulds & Veldheer (2011), Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device?, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03532.x/abstract> accessed: 2014-02-19
Bertholon , et al. (2013), Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha,
Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells,
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
vapeawaremd.info (03-2014) 'Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz.',
Phillips (2009), Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments,
Siegmund , et al. (1999), Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake,
Kim & Shin (2013), Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry,
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
Farsalinos & Voudris (no date), E-cigarette use and indoor air quality: methodological limitations Response to Schober W et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases
E-cigarettes full of puff as user numbers triple Newspaper Article Press Release: UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies
Ecigarette mist harmless, inhaled or exhaled Report Background Electronic cigarettes, without tobacco, flame or smoke, claim to be cigarette substitutes and to deliver nicotine safely, without smoke toxicants. Are these claims justified?
Polosa , et al. (2014), Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal,
Polosa , et al. (2013), Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study,
Borland , et al. (2012), Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes,
Foulds , et al. (2011), Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2011.02751.x/abstract> accessed: 2014-02-19
Cahn & Siegel (2011), Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?,
Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Journal Editorial Article Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them.
Pellegrino , et al. (2012), Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM), <http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22913171/> accessed: 2014-02-17
Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart Web Page 31 August 2013 19:28
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Environmental Health Criteria Monographs (EHCs)- Formaldehyde (EHC 89, 1989) Web Page 1.8 Effects on Man Formaldehyde has a pungent odour detectable at low concentrations, and its vapour and solutions are known skin and eye irritants in human beings. The common effects of formaldehyde exposure are various symptoms caused by irritation of the mucosa in the eyes and upper airways. In the non-industrial indoor environment, sensory reactions are typical effects, but there are large indiv…
ecigarette-research.com (2013), Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of e-cigarette vapor on cultured cardiac cells: a new study, <http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/135-evaluation-of-the-cytotoxic> accessed: 2014-04-09
Wieslander , et al. (2001), Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects,
Pirkle JL , et al. (1996), Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991,
FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) Statute An Act To protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco products, to amend title 5, United States Code,
FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes - Press Announcement Press Announcement The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced that a laboratory analysis of electronic cigarette samples has found that they contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze.
Glycerin Purification Document What is Glycerin? Glycerin (Glycerol) is a clear, odorless, viscous liquid with a naturally sweet taste. It is derived from both natural and petrochemical feedstocks. Glycerin occurs in combined form (triglycerides) in animal fats and vegetable oils and is obtained from these fats and oils during transesterification, such as in biodiesel production.
Health effects of Theatrical Haze Document The major findings of this study are summarized below: • No evidence of serious health effects was found to be associated with exposure to any of the theatrical effects evaluated in this study.
Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Journal Article Destructive distillation of solar heat transfer fluids was conducted to determine the types of pyrolytic products which might be formed in solar collectors under conditions of stagnation or malfunction.
Mayer (2013), How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer,
Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Journal Article ABSTRACT The medical community has long recognized that humans exhale volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several studies have quantified emissions of
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*
Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking,
Siegel M (1993), Involuntary smoking in the restaurant workplace: A review of employee exposure and health effects, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03510040094036> accessed: 2014-03-04
Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Report Nicotine itself has not been given a cancer rating, and it has not been analyzed as a carcinogen in its pure form. Although researchers call it the most biologically active ingredient in tobacco smoke and chewing tobacco, nicotine itself, according to research, does not cause the cell mutations.
Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Web Page Monograph Revisions At the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USP has revised and strengthened its Glycerin Monograph to prevent future diethylene glycol (DEG) and ethylene glycol (EG) adulteration.
USP (2009), Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, <http://www.usp.org/usp-nf/key-issues/revision-excipient-monographs-related-deg-eg-adulteration> accessed: 2014-01-29
Key Nicotine Findings.pdf Report Nicotine vs. tobacco smoke The main adverse effect of nicotine is addiction, which sustains tobacco use. Because most smokers are nicotine-dependent, they continue to expose themselves to toxicants from tobacco. Tobacco, not nicotine, is responsible for most of the adverse health effects.
Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Journal Article Since the mid-1990s the position that “no amount of secondhand smoke is safe” has achieved hegemonic status in the field of public health. This has bolstered efforts in the tobacco control community to advocate for smoke-free legislation and a variety of countries around the world have implemented indoor smoking bans, with many others presently following suit. Increasingly, tobacco contro…
Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Blog Post by Carl V Phillips Below is a letter to the editor and Igor Burstyn and I will be submitting to the journal that published this article 
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Journal Article Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generat…
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs.
More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the editor: Domino et al. (Aug 5 issue) suggest that nicotine obtained from the consumption of vegetables could complicate the interpretation of studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on the detection of nicotine or its metabolite cotinine. The crux of their argument was that typical levels of vegetable consumption could result in an exposure to nicotine equivalent to that from inhalation of …
Moving Past The e-Cigarette Wars: A Perspective From the Tobacco Control Trenches Web Page 03/13/2014 There is a war going on. A war that was once contained within the tobacco control community has slowly leaked out into the public sphere. It’s over something small enough to hold in your hand but with the promise of ending generations of death and disease caused by tobacco. It’s an e-cigarette, and the research and policy debates are just beginning to heat up.
Farsalinos (2013), New study confirms that e-cigarettes have minimal quantities of nitrosamines – authors do not report it as a conclusion,
New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard Blog Post A new study published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the first to examine levels of chemicals in the ambient air of a real-life setting in the presence of electronic cigarette use.
Nicotine and Health Blog Post This year, how about making a truly meaningful, life-altering New Year’s resolution? If you’re one of 44 million American smokers, we have one for you: Try separating the smoke from your nicotine fix. Doing so will save your life.
Nicotine Oral Inhalation: Cautions: MedlinePlus Drug Information Webpage-Report Webmaster note: The following refers to use of FDA approved oral nicotine inhalers, and as such may not apply, or only indirectly apply to vaporized oral nicotine inhalation.
Nicotine, the Wonder Drug? Magazine Article This notorious stimulant may enhance learning and help treat Parkinson's, schizophrenia and other neurological diseases. By Dan Hurley Wednesday, February 05, 2014
Nicotine: Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Webpage, Document Nicotine is listed as non-carcenogenic in the NIH Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB)
Zhou, Y., J.M. Benson, C. Irvin, H. Irshad, and Y.-S. Cheng (10-2008) 'Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions',
Burstyn, I. (2014) 'Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks', BMC Public Health, 14: 18. <doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-18>
Propylene glycol - Wikipedia Encylopedia Article Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2. It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform.
Sofuoglu , et al. (2012), Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine,
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Propylene Glycol and Dipropylene Glycol Web Page The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) has completed the human health and environmental risk assessments for propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol and is issuing its risk management decision and tolerance reassessment. The risk assessments, which are summarized below, are based on the review of the required target database supporting the use patterns of currently registered products. …
Farsalinos & Polosa (2014), Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review,
Scientists Find the Same Ecig “Toxins” In Regular Human Breath Blog Post All over the country, lawmakers are arguing that vaping should be banned in public areas because they fear it will put people at risk through secondhand exposure. Most recently, Los Angeles joined the campaign to outlaw public vaping, claiming that ecig vapor contains dangerous toxins like lead, nickel, nicotine, and chromium. After doing a little research, we found scientific evidence to refute lawmaker claims. It tur…
Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Article-Journal Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (commonly referred as e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor taken into lungs.
Vardavas , et al. (2012), Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide,
Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Journal Article Summary A recent report and press release issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Robertson , et al. (1947), Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration,
Puck , et al. (1943), The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air Ii. the Influence of Various Factors on the Activity of the Vapor,
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air. I Journal Article It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylo…
The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Document Summary MORTALITY RISKS AND CANCER RISKS VARY GREATLY BY PRODUCT
Benjamin Mason Meier, and Donna Shelley (10-2006) 'The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health', Public Health Reports, 121: 494 – 500,
Health, U.D. of, and H. Services (2006) 'The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General', Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 709
Lucy M Shieffelbien & Wayne A Temple (2013), The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies,
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the Editor: The presence of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in the body fluids of nonsmokers is usually taken as evidence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 800 people, both smokers and nonsmokers, all of whom tested positive for urinary cotinine1. There is considerable evidence that nicotine is present in certain human foods, especiall…
The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 Journal Article Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with aconcomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate.
Becquemin , et al. (2010), Third-hand smoking: indoor measurements of concentration and sizes of cigarette smoke particles after resuspension,
Three cases of attempted suicide by ingestion of nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes Conference Paper (Ingestion of up to 1500ml of e-liquid solution by a 36 y.o. adult shown to be non-fatal)
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke.
Sweanor, D., P. Alcabes, and E. Drucker (03-2007) 'Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic', International Journal of Drug Policy, 18: 70–74.
Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Manuscript Summary * Five of the volatile organic compounds detected by various studies in electronic cigarette vapor have also been found in human breath emissions (acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, formaldehyde and isoprene).
Schober , et al. (no date), Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases
Wake Up And Smell The Caffeine. It's A Powerful Drug Web Page Many of us can barely make it through the morning without first downing a cup of hot coffee. It's become such a big part of our daily rituals that few actually give much thought to what it is that we're putting in our bodies.