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2012NitzkinHarmReduction Doc.pdf Presentation Introduction This document is adapted from a presentation I gave to a joint committee meeting of the Oklahoma House and Senate, October 3, 2012. The first five pages present my remarks and images of my slides. The next seven pages present brief narratives relative to the most common objections raised by opponents of Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR), with selected bibliographic references.
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population-based medical intervention for smoking cessation Journal Article Objective To examine the population effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), either with or without professional counselling, and provide evidence needed to better inform healthcare coverage decisions.
A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Journal Article Introduction: A considerable minority of adults remain addicted to smoking cigarettes despite substantial education and public health efforts. Nicotine replacement therapies have only modest long-term quit rates. The pulmonary route of nicotine delivery has advantages over other routes. However, there are regulatory and technical barriers to the development of pulmonary nicotine delivery de…
AAPHP Statement re State Regulation of E-cigarettes Document The American Association of Public Health Physicians recommends the following State response to proposed legislation to ban or otherwise restrict the sale and use of nicotine vaporizers (commonly referred to as E-cigarettes or electronic cigarettes).
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function Journal Article Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. Objective:
Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities Journal Article The objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the liquid used to fill the cartridges, and from smoke generated using the electronic cigarette devices. An HPLC method was validated for the determination.
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyzed 20 models of 10 of the most popular brands of refill liquids, using gas and liquid chromatography.
ASH Fact Sheet 114- Nicotine and addiction Document What does the term addiction mean? Addiction is defined by the World Health Organization as “repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user is: • periodically or chronically intoxicated, • shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance(s), • has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, • exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means, and • …
ASH Fact Sheet 891- Use of e-cigarettes in Great Britain among adults and young people (2013) Document ASH has commissioned surveys on e-cigarette use starting in 2010 with a survey of smokers, followed in February 2012 and 2013 by surveys of all adults and in March 2013 with a survey of children aged 11 to 18.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Awareness and Ever-Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2010–2011 Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010–2011.
CAADE Board Resolution on Electronic Cigarettes Web Page CAADE SUPPORTS ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES FOR TOBACCO CESSATION: Watch Father Jack's Testimony at the SB 648 hearing on April 17, 2013 ---------- z-ref: nq5csmcp category-legal_or_policy commentary-professional e-cigarette folder-e-cigs government_policy leans-positive organization_position public_health_policy thr
CASAA 2010 E-cigarette User Survey Results Web Page A Survey of over 200 users. ---------- answered question 2,217 skipped question What is your age group? Under 18 18 - 21 22 - 25 26 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59
CDC Online Newsroom - E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 Web Press Release E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 More than 75 percent of youth users smoke conventional cigarettes too.
Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality? Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-CIG) have been marketed as a safer alternative habit to tobacco smoking. We have developed a group of research protocols to evaluate the effects of e-CIG on human health, called ClearStream. No studies have adequately evaluated the effects of e-CIG use on the release of chemicals to the environment…
Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Journal Article Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (
Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device? Journal Article Smoked tobacco products are the only legal products that kill half their consumers, and some of those around them, when used as intended. More than 17 billion cigarettes are smoked world-wide every day, and that number continues to increase [1]. People smoke for the psychoactive and addictive effects of nicotine, but are killed by other toxins in the smoke [2,3].
Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
Debunking the claim that abstinence is usually healthier for smokers than switching to a low-risk alternative, and other observations about anti-tobacco-harm-reduction arguments Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is so desirable to many people that when they are given only the options of consuming nicotine by smoking, with its high health costs, and not consuming nicotine at all, many opt for the former. Few smokers realize that there is a third choice: non-combustion nicotine sources, such…
Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake Journal Article This investigation was initiated as a result of proposals in the literature that dietary nicotine intake could contribute to the level of nicotine metabolites in biological fluids such as salivary cotinine concentration.
Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Journal Article Highlights TSNAsTSNAsTSNA Abstract A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
E-cigarette use and indoor air quality: methodological limitations Response to Schober W et al. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Journal Article By Dr Farsalinos
Ecigarette mist harmless, inhaled or exhaled Report Background Electronic cigarettes, without tobacco, flame or smoke, claim to be cigarette substitutes and to deliver nicotine safely, without smoke toxicants. Are these claims justified? Aim
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial Journal Article Objectives To measure the short-term effects of an electronic nicotine delivery device (“e cigarette”,
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study Journal Article Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary.
Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these produ…
Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarette) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine that may aid smokers to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption. Research on e-Cigarettes is urgently needed to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are evidence based. Here we assessed long-term effectiveness and tolerability of …
Effects of a Fact Sheet on beliefs about the harmfulness of alternative nicotine delivery systems compared with cigarettes Journal Article Background This study explored the value of providing information in a Fact Sheet to correct misperceptions about the relative harmfulness of nicotine replacement products (NRT) and smokeless tobacco (ST), when compared to cigarette smoking.
Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is …
Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependence Journal Article ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality in western countries and it is important for smokers to stop as early as possible. Electronic cigarettes are a popular phenomenon of global proportion. Recent uncontrolled studies, reported that a certain number of smokers have quit using electronic cigarettes. This could hint a role for electronic cigarettes to be used for smoking ce…
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have experienced a rapid growth in popularity but little is known about how they are used.
Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among us adolescents: A cross-sectional study Journal Article Importance Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among adolescents, and e-cigarettes are currently unregulated.Objective To examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking.
Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? Journal Article Abstract The issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use.
Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Journal Editorial Article Allow them, but research and monitoring are needed so that the risks can be regulated. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigarette shaped products that vaporise nicotine in ways that enable it to be inhaled, have become increasingly popular in the past few years.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective Journal Editorial Article Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them.
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Journal Article The “electronic (e-)cigarette” generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking, and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution, until its effectiveness in helping smokers is clarified, and the possible harm evaluated.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized ECs were used, though experienced
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review Journal Article Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘elec…
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Journal Article BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries.
Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of "Vapers" Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are alternative-to-smoking nicotine delivery devices; consumers (commonly called vapers) use them in order to reduce or completely substitute smoking. The European Commission has released a proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive that might reduce availability of nicotine-containin…
Evidence against a gateway from smokeless tobacco use to smoking Journal Article INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco (ST) use by young people induces them to become smokers, but direct evidence is lacking. METHODS: Information in the 2003, 2005, and 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was used to determine the prevalence of smoking among White men (aged 18+ years) and boys (aged 16-17 years) who had started tobacco use with ST, cigarettes, or with both produc…
Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991 Journal Article Objective.  To estimate the extent of exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke and the contribution of the home and workplace environment to environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
Free Market Solutions in Health: The case of nicotine Report Summary: Many campaigners working in the field of public health believe that good health and free market capitalism are irreconcilable. They regard advertising, competition and the pursuit of profit as major causes of unhealthy consumption and view disfavoured industries as ‘disease vectors’. Accordingly, they support political action which limits commercial speech and restricts product development.
Glaxo Memo Shows Drug Industry Lobbying on E-Cigarettes Newspaper Article GlaxoSmithKline Plc is pushing for more stringent regulation of electronic cigarettes, which compete with its Nicorette gum and other smoking cessation products, according to e-mails from a company executive.
Health effects of Theatrical Haze Document The major findings of this study are summarized below: • No evidence of serious health effects was found to be associated with exposure to any of the theatrical effects evaluated in this study. • Peak exposures to elevated localized air concentrations following a release of glycol smoke are associated with increased reporting of respiratory, throat, and nasal symptoms, and findings of vocal cord inflammation.
How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? Journal Article OBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded.
How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer Journal Article The discrepancy between the 60-mg dose and published cases of nicotine intoxication has been noted previously (Matsushima et al. 1995; Metzler et al. 2005), but nonetheless, this value is still accepted without scrutiny and taken as the basis for worldwide safety regulations of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products. Nicoti…
Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Journal Article ABSTRACT The medical community has long recognized that humans exhale volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several studies have quantified emissions of VOCs from human breath, with values ranging widely due to variation between and within individuals. The authors have measured human breath concentrations of isoprene and pentane.
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*1,2, Suzaynn Schick 3, Mohamad Sleiman4, and Prue Talbot
Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking Journal Article Purpose: Cigarette smoking causes an acute elevation in carboxyhemoglobin levels (HbCO) and has immediate adverse effects on coronary circulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of electronic cigarette (
Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study Journal Article Abstract: Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been…
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased dramatically. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices deliver an aerosol comprised usually of water, propylene glycol and/or glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. Scant research exists to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such devices, and only one quantitative survey of European users (N = 81) has been published. …
Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment Journal Article Aims Nicotine is known to enhance aspects of cognitive functioning in abstinent smokers, but the effects on specific areas of executive functions and in non-smokers are inconclusive. This may be due in part to the poor sensitivity of tests used to assess executive functions. This study used a new virtual reality assessment of executive functions known as JEF (the Jansari asse…
Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Report Nicotine itself has not been given a cancer rating, and it has not been analyzed as a carcinogen in its pure form. Although researchers call it the most biologically active ingredient in tobacco smoke and chewing tobacco, nicotine itself, according to research, does not cause the cell mutations.
Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications? Journal Article The rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes has been accompanied by substantial discussions by governments, international organisations, consumers and public health experts about how they might be regulated.
Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Web Page Monograph Revisions At the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USP has revised and strengthened its Glycerin Monograph to prevent future diethylene glycol (DEG) and ethylene glycol (EG) adulteration.
Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Document Revised Monographs Based on a request from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2009, USP has revised and strengthened its monographs for five pharmaceutical excipients used in drug formulations-Propylene Glycol
Learning from Evidence in a Complex World Journal Article Policies to promote public health and welfare often fail or worsen the problems they are intended to solve. Evidence-based learning should prevent such policy resistance, but learning in complex systems is often weak and slow. Complexity hinders our ability to discover the delayed and distal impacts of interventions, generating unintended “side effects.”
Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Journal Article Since the mid-1990s the position that “no amount of secondhand smoke is safe” has achieved hegemonic status in the field of public health. This has bolstered efforts in the tobacco control community to advocate for smoke-free legislation and a variety of countries around the world have implemented indoor smoking bans, with many others presently following suit. Increasingly, tobacco contro…
Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Blog Post by Carl V Phillips Below is a letter to the editor and Igor Burstyn and I will be submitting to the journal that published this article -- “Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers” by Schober W, Szendrei K, Matzen W, Osiander-Fuchs H, Heitmann D, Schettgen T, Jörres RA, Fromme H – which made alarmist claims about the content of exh…
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs. In spite of extensive research on the health effects of tobacco smoking, the substances in tobacco smoke exerting these negative health effects are not completely known. Nicotine is the substance giving the subjective pleasure of smoking as well as inducing addiction.
Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential thera…
Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Are Present in Electronic Cigarette Cartomizer Fluid and Aerosol Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition Dramatically Increases the Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine in Rats Journal Article Nicotine is the major neuroactive compound of tobacco, which has, by itself, weak reinforcing properties. It is known that levels of the enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and MAO-B are reduced in the platelets and brains of smokers and that substances, other than nicotine, present in tobacco smoke have MAO-inhibitory activities.
Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample Journal Article AIMS: To evaluate non-causal and causal patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and cigarette use; to assess the prevalence of “non-gateway” and possible “gateway” patterns of SLT use.
New study confirms that e-cigarettes have minimal quantities of nitrosamines – authors do not report it as a conclusion Blog Post A study published 3 months ago in Journal of Chromatography confirms that e-cigarette liquids have minimal quantities of cancer-causing nitrosamines, however, authors failed to mention the comparable levels detected in tobacco cigarettes.
New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard Blog Post A new study published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the first to examine levels of chemicals in the ambient air of a real-life setting in the presence of electronic cigarette use.
Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices Journal Article A wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking.
Nicotine Addiction Journal Article This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions.
Nicotine and Health Blog Post This year, how about making a truly meaningful, life-altering New Year’s resolution? If you’re one of 44 million American smokers, we have one for you: Try separating the smoke from your nicotine fix. Doing so will save your life.
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Journal Article Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Nicotine: Medication or Scourge? Book Section The majority of people in most cultures uses psychoactive drugs. In our society only three such substances are legal and freely available: caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine. One of these, nicotine, is an endangered species as the laws against its use multiply in the United States.
Noncombustible Tobacco Product Advertising: How Companies Are Selling the New Face of Tobacco Journal Article Background: With declining cigarette sales, increasing restrictions, and recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of cigarettes, there has been a dramatic rise in the marketing of noncombustible tobacco products (NCPs). However, little is known about how NCPs are advertised and to whom.
Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence Journal Article Aims We have demonstrated previously that acute smoking abstinence is associated with lowered reward motivation and impaired response inhibition. This prospective study explores whether these impairments, along with withdrawal-related symptoms, recover over 3 months of sustained abstinence.
Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an Internet survey Journal Article INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: As the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) increases, it is becoming important to find out more about the characteristics of e-cigarette users, why and how they use the product and whether e-cigarettes are used exclusively or in combination with conventional cigarettes. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns and effe…
Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression Journal Article Abstract Even though individuals with psychiatric conditions have a prevalence of smoking approximately 2–4 times greater than the general population, surprisingly little evidence exists to inform an assessment of the full range of tobacco-related mortality in such populations.
RainMan's 2011-2012 CDC NYTS Survey Data Note: Data is preliminary, needs verification but believed to be accurate. Link to original CDC Datasets Related: CDC Online Newsroom - E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 category-youth cdc e-cigarette folder-e-cigs gateway incomplete_information-_bias leans-positive nicotine survey
Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine Journal Article The ratio of nicotine metabolites (trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC) to cotinine) correlates with nicotine clearance. In previous studies, high nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) predicted poor outcomes for smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch. The underlying mechanisms that associate NMR with treatment outcomes have not been fully elucidated.
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review Journal Article Abstract Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them.
Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide Journal Article Background:   Debate exists over the scientific evidence for claims that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have no health-related ramifications. This study aimed to assess whether using an e-cigarette for 5 min has an impact on the pulmonary function tests and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) of healthy adult smokers.
Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Journal Article Summary A recent report and press release issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assert that NJOY e-cigarette cartridges contain harmful levels of carcinogens and toxic chemicals. It was further implied that these chemicals are not found in other FDA-approved nicotine-containing products. Subsequently, a technical review and scientific analysis of the FDA’s report was performed by scientists …
Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 Journal Article Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 ANN ARBOR—Smoking among teens in grades 8, 10 and 12 continued to decline in 2013—apositive trend since most smokers begin their habit in adolescence—according to the latest survey results from the nationwide Monitoring the Future study.
Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration Journal Article With a view to determining the safety of employing the vapors of propylene glycol and triethylene glycol in atmospheres inhabited by human beings, monkeys and rats were exposed continuously to high concentrations of these vapors for periods of 12 to 18 months. Equal numbers of control animals were maintained under physically similar condit…
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air II. the Influence of Various Factors on the Activity of the Vapor Journal Article A study of the conditions which affect the bactericidal action of propylene glycol vapor on air-suspended microorganisms has been carried out. The killing process was found to be more effective when both the total number of air-borne droplets and the number of organisms in the bacterial suspension are small. A temperature belo…
The Bactericidal Action of Propylene Glycol Vapor on Microorganisms Suspended in Air. I Journal Article It has been found that propylene glycol vapor dispersed into the air of an enclosed space produces a marked and rapid bactericidal effect on microorganisms introduced into such an atmosphere in droplet form. Concentrations of 1 gm. of propylene glycol vapor in two to four million cc. of air produced immediate and complete sterilization of air into which pneumococci, streptococci, staphylo…
The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning Journal Article Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning.
The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition.
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems) heat a nicotine solution to generate vapor that is inhaled, without the combustion of tobacco and its toxic constituents. Use of e-cigarettes is increasing in the United States and around the world.
The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011 Journal Article Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with aconcomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate.
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Tobacco Harm Reduction: How Rational Public Policy Could Transform a Pandemic Article-Journal Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Manuscript Summary * Five of the volatile organic compounds detected by various studies in electronic cigarette vapor have also been found in human breath emissions (acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, formaldehyde and isoprene).
Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments Journal Article Tobacco use is a global pandemic that poses a substantial and costly health burden. There are some treatment options are available, but currently marketed smoking-cessation drugs lack high levels of efficacy, particularly in real-life settings. Consequently, there is a compelling need for more effective pharmacotherapies to aid smokers in maintaining long-term abstinence.
Use of a liquid nicotine delivery product to promote smoking cessation Journal Article Despite access to various pharmacotherapies and counseling support to aid cessation, smokers typically demonstrate quit rates below 50%. This report describes the results of a Phase 2a study exploring the efficacy of a liquid nicotine delivery system as an aid to smoking cessation assessed after 12 weeks of therapy. PMID: 20334673
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Journal Article Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (
‘Real-world’ effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments: a population study Journal Article Background and aims There is a need for more evidence on the ‘real-world’ effectiveness of commonly used aids to smoking cessation from population-level studies.