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Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function Journal Article Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. Objective:
ASH Fact Sheet 114- Nicotine and addiction Document What does the term addiction mean? Addiction is defined by the World Health Organization as “repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user is: • periodically or chronically intoxicated, • shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance(s), • has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, • exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means, and • …
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Awareness and Ever-Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults, 2010–2011 Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010–2011.
Does ANYONE have a valid definition of “addiction”? | Anti-THR Lies and related topics Blog Post Does ANYONE have a valid definition of “addiction”? Posted on 7 October 2013 by Carl V Phillips | 28 Comments by Carl V Phillips Sorry for the radio silence. Was traveling, and then exhausted and sick. During my travels, I had a few interesting debates about the concept of addiction, and promised to write the following, which I finally have completed. The funny thing about all debates about…
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements Journal Article The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical/public health perspectives Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have experienced a rapid growth in popularity but little is known about how they are used.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Journal Article The “electronic (e-)cigarette” generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking, and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution, until its effectiveness in helping smokers is clarified, and the possible harm evaluated.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized ECs were used, though experienced
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review Journal Article Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘elec…
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Journal Article BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries.
Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects Journal Article OBJECTIVES— Propylene glycol (PG) (1-2 propanediol; CAS No 57-55-6) is a low toxicity compound widely used as a food additive, in pharmaceutical preparations, in cosmetics, and in the workplace—for example, water based paints, de-icing fluids, and cooling liquids. Exposure to
FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) Statute An Act To protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco products, to amend title 5, United States Code, to make certain modifications in the Thrift Savings Plan, the Civil Service Retirement System, and the Federal Employees’ Retirement System, and for other purposes.
Glycerin Purification Document What is Glycerin? Glycerin (Glycerol) is a clear, odorless, viscous liquid with a naturally sweet taste. It is derived from both natural and petrochemical feedstocks. Glycerin occurs in combined form (triglycerides) in animal fats and vegetable oils and is obtained from these fats and oils during transesterification, such as in biodiesel production.
Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Journal Article Destructive distillation of solar heat transfer fluids was conducted to determine the types of pyrolytic products which might be formed in solar collectors under conditions of stagnation or malfunction.
How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? Journal Article OBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded.
Human Breath Emissions of VOCs Journal Article ABSTRACT The medical community has long recognized that humans exhale volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several studies have quantified emissions of VOCs from human breath, with values ranging widely due to variation between and within individuals. The authors have measured human breath concentrations of isoprene and pentane.
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*1,2, Suzaynn Schick 3, Mohamad Sleiman4, and Prue Talbot
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased dramatically. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices deliver an aerosol comprised usually of water, propylene glycol and/or glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. Scant research exists to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such devices, and only one quantitative survey of European users (N = 81) has been published. …
Intravenous Nicotine and Caffeine: Subjective and Physiological Effects in Cocaine Abusers Journal Article The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered caffeine and nicotine were compared in nine subjects with histories of using caffeine, tobacco, and cocaine.
Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications? Journal Article The rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes has been accompanied by substantial discussions by governments, international organisations, consumers and public health experts about how they might be regulated.
Key Issue: Glycerin | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Web Page Monograph Revisions At the request of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USP has revised and strengthened its Glycerin Monograph to prevent future diethylene glycol (DEG) and ethylene glycol (EG) adulteration.
Key Issue: Revision of Excipient Monographs Related to DEG & EG Adulteration | U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention Document Revised Monographs Based on a request from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2009, USP has revised and strengthened its monographs for five pharmaceutical excipients used in drug formulations-Propylene Glycol
Learning from Evidence in a Complex World Journal Article Policies to promote public health and welfare often fail or worsen the problems they are intended to solve. Evidence-based learning should prevent such policy resistance, but learning in complex systems is often weak and slow. Complexity hinders our ability to discover the delayed and distal impacts of interventions, generating unintended “side effects.”
Legislating abjection? Secondhand smoke, tobacco control policy and the public's health Journal Article Since the mid-1990s the position that “no amount of secondhand smoke is safe” has achieved hegemonic status in the field of public health. This has bolstered efforts in the tobacco control community to advocate for smoke-free legislation and a variety of countries around the world have implemented indoor smoking bans, with many others presently following suit. Increasingly, tobacco contro…
Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential thera…
More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the editor: Domino et al. (Aug 5 issue) suggest that nicotine obtained from the consumption of vegetables could complicate the interpretation of studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on the detection of nicotine or its metabolite cotinine. The crux of their argument was that typical levels of vegetable consumption could result in an exposure to nicotine equivalent to that from inhalation of …
Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices Journal Article A wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking.
Nicotine Addiction Journal Article This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions.
Nicotine addiction and withdrawal Web Document . . . . Causes, incidence, and risk factors Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine.
Nicotine Oral Inhalation: Cautions: MedlinePlus Drug Information Webpage-Report Webmaster note: The following refers to use of FDA approved oral nicotine inhalers, and as such may not apply, or only indirectly apply to vaporized oral nicotine inhalation.
Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions Article-Journal Showering produces respirable droplets that may serve to deposit pollutants such as trihalomethane decontamination products, heavy metals, inorganic salts, microbes, or cyanoacterial toxins within the respiratory tract.
Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence Journal Article Aims We have demonstrated previously that acute smoking abstinence is associated with lowered reward motivation and impaired response inhibition. This prospective study explores whether these impairments, along with withdrawal-related symptoms, recover over 3 months of sustained abstinence.
Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression Journal Article Abstract Even though individuals with psychiatric conditions have a prevalence of smoking approximately 2–4 times greater than the general population, surprisingly little evidence exists to inform an assessment of the full range of tobacco-related mortality in such populations.
Propylene glycol - Wikipedia Encylopedia Article Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2. It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform.
Psychosocial Withdrawal Characteristics of Nicotine Compared with Alcohol and Caffeine Journal Article The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal.
Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine Journal Article The ratio of nicotine metabolites (trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC) to cotinine) correlates with nicotine clearance. In previous studies, high nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) predicted poor outcomes for smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch. The underlying mechanisms that associate NMR with treatment outcomes have not been fully elucidated.
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
SMOKING EVERYWHERE, INC., Plaintiff, and SOTTERA, INC., d/b/a NJOY, Intervenor-Plaintiff, v. U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, et aI., Defendants. Case Case 1:09-cv-00771-RJL Document 54 Filed 01/14/10 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning Journal Article Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning.
The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies Conference Paper Objective: A review of calls to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre to determine if there is an increased incidence of children ingesting oral nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs).
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the Editor: The presence of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in the body fluids of nonsmokers is usually taken as evidence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 800 people, both smokers and nonsmokers, all of whom tested positive for urinary cotinine1. There is considerable evidence that nicotine is present in certain human foods, especiall…
The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems) heat a nicotine solution to generate vapor that is inhaled, without the combustion of tobacco and its toxic constituents. Use of e-cigarettes is increasing in the United States and around the world.
Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments Journal Article Tobacco use is a global pandemic that poses a substantial and costly health burden. There are some treatment options are available, but currently marketed smoking-cessation drugs lack high levels of efficacy, particularly in real-life settings. Consequently, there is a compelling need for more effective pharmacotherapies to aid smokers in maintaining long-term abstinence.
Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers Journal Article Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (