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tag:nicotine [E-Cigarette Research]

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A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
Alpert , et al. (2013), A prospective cohort study challenging the effectiveness of population-based medical intervention for smoking cessation,
A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Journal Article Introduction: A considerable minority of adults remain addicted to smoking cigarettes despite substantial education and public health efforts. Nicotine replacement therapies have only modest long-term quit rates. The pulmonary route of nicotine delivery has advantages over other routes. However, there are regulatory and technical barriers to the development of pulmonary nicotine delivery de…
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Trehy , et al. (2011), Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities,
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Background Paper on E-Cigarettes Article OVERALL SUMMARY While most discussion of e-cigarettes among health authorities has concentrated on the product itself, its potential toxicity and use of e-cigarettes to help people quit smoking, the e- cigarette companies have been rapidly expanding using aggressive marketing messages similar to those used to promote cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Moreover, e-cigarette advertising is on television and radio in many countries that have long-banne…
CDC (2013), CDC Online Newsroom | Press Release | E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012,
Chapter 12 - Cognitive, affective and motivational effects of smoking Book Section Publisher Summary This chapter discusses cognitive, affective, and motivational effects of smoking. The individual differences at genetic, personality, affective, and cognitive levels relate to the development of dependence and influence the effects of pharmacological and psychological interventions. It is found that smokers obtain benefits from nicotine, relative to their functioning when acutely abstinent,…
G. Romagna MD , et al. (2012), Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality?,
Foulds & Veldheer (2011), Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device?, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03532.x/abstract> accessed: 2014-02-19
Bertholon , et al. (2013), Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha,
Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells,
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
vapeawaremd.info (03-2014) 'Critical Review of “Background Paper on E-Cigarettes” Prepared for the World Health Organization by Grana, Benowitz, and Glantz.',
Siegmund , et al. (1999), Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake,
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
Bullen , et al. (2010), Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial,
Polosa , et al. (2011), Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study,
Cahn & Siegel (2011), Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?,
Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Journal Editorial Article Allow them, but research and monitoring are needed so that the risks can be regulated.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with
Electronic cigarettes: no adverse effects on blood and oxygen supply to the heart Web Page 31 August 2013 19:28
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Pepper & Brewer (2013), Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review,
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Journal Article BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries.
Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of
ecigarette-research.com (2013), Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of e-cigarette vapor on cultured cardiac cells: a new study, <http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/135-evaluation-of-the-cytotoxic> accessed: 2014-04-09
Evidence against a gateway from smokeless tobacco use to smoking Journal Article INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco (ST) use by young people induces them to become smokers, but direct evidence is lacking.
Pirkle JL , et al. (1996), Exposure of the us population to environmental tobacco smoke: The third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988 to 1991,
FAMILY SMOKING PREVENTION AND TOBACCO CONTROL ACT (FSPTCA) Statute An Act To protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco products, to amend title 5, United States Code,
Free Market Solutions in Health: The case of nicotine Report Summary: Many campaigners working in the field of public health believe that good health and free market capitalism are irreconcilable. They regard advertising, competition and the pursuit of profit as major causes of unhealthy consumption and view disfavoured industries as ‘disease vectors’. Accordingly, they support political action which limits commercial speech and restricts product development.
ACSH (2013), Ground-breaking study supports e-cigarettes' superiority over nicotine patches | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH),
Mayer (2013), How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer,
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*
Farsalinos , et al. (2013), Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smoking,
Caponnetto , et al. (2013), Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study,
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction:
Garrett & Griffiths (2001), Intravenous Nicotine and Caffeine: Subjective and Physiological Effects in Cocaine Abusers, <http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/296/2/486> accessed: 2014-03-12
Dawkins , et al. (2013), Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12082/abstract> accessed: 2013-11-11
Is Nicotine a Carcinogen? Report Nicotine itself has not been given a cancer rating, and it has not been analyzed as a carcinogen in its pure form. Although researchers call it the most biologically active ingredient in tobacco smoke and chewing tobacco, nicotine itself, according to research, does not cause the cell mutations.
Farsalinos & Stimson (no date), Is there any legal and scientific basis for classifying electronic cigarettes as medications?, <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395914000644> accessed: 2014-03-28
Key Nicotine Findings.pdf Report Nicotine vs. tobacco smoke The main adverse effect of nicotine is addiction, which sustains tobacco use. Because most smokers are nicotine-dependent, they continue to expose themselves to toxicants from tobacco. Tobacco, not nicotine, is responsible for most of the adverse health effects.
Letter re fatal flaws in Schober et al. paper on environmental vapor Blog Post by Carl V Phillips Below is a letter to the editor and Igor Burstyn and I will be submitting to the journal that published this article 
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Journal Article Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generat…
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs.
Metabolism and Disposition Kinetics of Nicotine Journal Article Abstract Nicotine is of importance as the addictive chemical in tobacco, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, a potential medication for several diseases, and a useful probe drug for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). We review current knowledge about the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine, some other naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids, and nicotine analogs that are under development as potential thera…
Guillem , et al. (2005), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition Dramatically Increases the Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine in Rats,
More on the Nicotine Content of Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the editor: Domino et al. (Aug 5 issue) suggest that nicotine obtained from the consumption of vegetables could complicate the interpretation of studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on the detection of nicotine or its metabolite cotinine. The crux of their argument was that typical levels of vegetable consumption could result in an exposure to nicotine equivalent to that from inhalation of …
New Study of Passive Vaping Shows No Evidence of a Significant Public Health Hazard Blog Post A new study published online ahead of print in the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health is one of the first to examine levels of chemicals in the ambient air of a real-life setting in the presence of electronic cigarette use.
New Study Shows that Thirdhand Smoke is 100 Times More Dilute than Secondhand Smoke Blog Post What may be the first investigation to actually measure the ambient levels of thirdhand smoke and compare them with levels of secondhand smoke, a new study
Farsalinos , et al. (2014), Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices,
Nicotine Addiction Journal Article This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions.
Nicotine addiction and withdrawal Web Document . . . . Causes, incidence, and risk factors Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects.
Nicotine and Health Blog Post This year, how about making a truly meaningful, life-altering New Year’s resolution? If you’re one of 44 million American smokers, we have one for you: Try separating the smoke from your nicotine fix. Doing so will save your life.
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Journal Article Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Nicotine, the Wonder Drug? Magazine Article This notorious stimulant may enhance learning and help treat Parkinson's, schizophrenia and other neurological diseases. By Dan Hurley Wednesday, February 05, 2014
Nicotine: Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) Webpage, Document Nicotine is listed as non-carcenogenic in the NIH Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB)
Dawkins , et al. (2009), Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence,
Callaghan , et al. (2013), Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression,
Burstyn, I. (2014) 'Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks', BMC Public Health, 14: 18. <doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-18>
Psychosocial Withdrawal Characteristics of Nicotine Compared with Alcohol and Caffeine Journal Article The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal.
RainMan's 2011-2012 CDC NYTS Survey Data Note: Data is preliminary, needs verification but believed to be accurate. Link to original CDC Datasets Related: CDC Online Newsroom - E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-2012 category-youth cdc e-cigarette folder-e-cigs gateway incomplete_information-_bias leans-positive nicotine survey
Sofuoglu , et al. (2012), Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine,
Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Article-Journal Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (commonly referred as e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor taken into lungs.
Should criteria for drug dependence differ across drugs? Journal Article Aim To examine the pros and cons of using the same diagnostic criteria for dependence across all drugs versus using dependence criteria specific to the drug of interest.
Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report:“Evaluation of e-cigarettes” Journal Article Summary A recent report and press release issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning Journal Article Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning.
The effects of nicotine on human health | American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) Document Summary MORTALITY RISKS AND CANCER RISKS VARY GREATLY BY PRODUCT
Kralikova, E., S. Kubatova, K. Truneckova, A. Kmetova, and P. Hajek (2012) 'The Electronic Cigarette: What Proportion of Smokers Have Tried It and How Many Use It Regularly?', Addiction, 107: 1528–1529.
The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition.
Lucy M Shieffelbien & Wayne A Temple (2013), The increasing prevalence in New Zealand of exposures of children to nicotine replacement therapies,
The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables Article-Journal Review Commentary To the Editor: The presence of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in the body fluids of nonsmokers is usually taken as evidence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 800 people, both smokers and nonsmokers, all of whom tested positive for urinary cotinine1. There is considerable evidence that nicotine is present in certain human foods, especiall…
Three cases of attempted suicide by ingestion of nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes Conference Paper (Ingestion of up to 1500ml of e-liquid solution by a 36 y.o. adult shown to be non-fatal)
Toxins in E-Cig Vapor Also Found in Human Breath and Outdoor Air Manuscript Summary * Five of the volatile organic compounds detected by various studies in electronic cigarette vapor have also been found in human breath emissions (acetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, formaldehyde and isoprene).
Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments Journal Article Tobacco use is a global pandemic that poses a substantial and costly health burden.
Schober , et al. (no date), Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases