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A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects Journal Article Background: Electronic “cigarettes” are marketed to tobacco users as potential reduced exposure products (PREP), albeit with little information regarding electronic cigarette user toxicant exposure and effects. This information may be obtained by adapting clinical laboratory methods used to evaluate other PREPs for smoke…
A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette Journal Article Abstract Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain fro…
A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Journal Article Introduction: A considerable minority of adults remain addicted to smoking cigarettes despite substantial education and public health efforts. Nicotine replacement therapies have only modest long-term quit rates. The pulmonary route of nicotine delivery has advantages over other routes. However, there are regulatory and technical barriers to the development of pulmonary nicotine delivery de…
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count Journal Article The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (
Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function Journal Article Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. Objective:
Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Refill Solutions, and Smoke for Nicotine and Nicotine Related Impurities Journal Article The objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the liquid used to fill the cartridges, and from smoke generated using the electronic cigarette devices. An HPLC method was validated for the determination.
Analysis of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes Journal Article AIMS: To assess levels of nicotine, nicotine degradation products and some specific impurities in commercial refill liquids for electronic cigarettes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyzed 20 models of 10 of the most popular brands of refill liquids, using gas and liquid chromatography.
ASSESSMENT OF THIRDHAND EXPOSURE TO NICOTINE FROM ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES Conference Paper Purpose: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are new battery-powered devices that resemble tobacco cigarettes and convert nicotine solutions into inhalable vapors.
Characterization of chemicals released to the environment by electronic cigarettes use (ClearStream-AIR project): is passive vaping a reality? Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-CIG) have been marketed as a safer alternative habit to tobacco smoking. We have developed a group of research protocols to evaluate the effects of e-CIG on human health, called ClearStream. No studies have adequately evaluated the effects of e-CIG use on the release of chemicals to the environment…
Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health Journal Article Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (
Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality Journal Article CONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-ci…
Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry Journal Article Highlights TSNAsTSNAsTSNA Abstract A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (
Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping? Journal Article Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial Journal Article Objectives To measure the short-term effects of an electronic nicotine delivery device (“e cigarette”,
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study Journal Article Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary.
Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study Journal Article Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a ‘smoking’ experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is …
Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: A step forward or a repeat of past mistakes? Journal Article Abstract The issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use.
Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control Journal Editorial Article Allow them, but research and monitoring are needed so that the risks can be regulated. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigarette shaped products that vaporise nicotine in ways that enable it to be inhaled, have become increasingly popular in the past few years.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM) Journal Article The “electronic (e-)cigarette” generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking, and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution, until its effectiveness in helping smokers is clarified, and the possible harm evaluated.
Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration Journal Article Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized ECs were used, though experienced
Electronic Cigarettes: What We Know So Far Online video and PowerPoint presentation Summary ---------- z-ref: a8utrzsg 2nd_hand leans-neutral leans-positive carcinogens category-efficacy category-general information category-health_and_safety e-cigarette glycerin glycols nicotine pg propylene_glycol research smoking_cessation thr toxicity uk
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review Journal Article Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘elec…
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: International Tobacco Control Four-country Survey Journal Article BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries.
Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use in a Group of "Vapers" Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking Journal Article Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are alternative-to-smoking nicotine delivery devices; consumers (commonly called vapers) use them in order to reduce or completely substitute smoking. The European Commission has released a proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive that might reduce availability of nicotine-containin…
Evidence against a gateway from smokeless tobacco use to smoking Journal Article INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco (ST) use by young people induces them to become smokers, but direct evidence is lacking. METHODS: Information in the 2003, 2005, and 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was used to determine the prevalence of smoking among White men (aged 18+ years) and boys (aged 16-17 years) who had started tobacco use with ST, cigarettes, or with both produc…
FDA and Public Health Experts Warn About Electronic Cigarettes - Press Announcement Press Announcement The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced that a laboratory analysis of electronic cigarette samples has found that they contain carcinogens and toxic chemicals such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze.
Heat degradation studies of solar heat transfer fluids Journal Article Destructive distillation of solar heat transfer fluids was conducted to determine the types of pyrolytic products which might be formed in solar collectors under conditions of stagnation or malfunction.
How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes? Journal Article OBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded.
How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century - Springer Journal Article The discrepancy between the 60-mg dose and published cases of nicotine intoxication has been noted previously (Matsushima et al. 1995; Metzler et al. 2005), but nonetheless, this value is still accepted without scrutiny and taken as the basis for worldwide safety regulations of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products. Nicoti…
IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Conference Paper (See note attachment for extended abstract) IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMICALS IN THIRDHAND SMOKE Vasundhra Bahl*1,2, Suzaynn Schick 3, Mohamad Sleiman4, and Prue Talbot
Interviews With “Vapers”: Implications for Future Research With Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased dramatically. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices deliver an aerosol comprised usually of water, propylene glycol and/or glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. Scant research exists to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such devices, and only one quantitative survey of European users (N = 81) has been published. …
Investigating the impact of nicotine on executive functions using a novel virtual reality assessment Journal Article Aims Nicotine is known to enhance aspects of cognitive functioning in abstinent smokers, but the effects on specific areas of executive functions and in non-smokers are inconclusive. This may be due in part to the poor sensitivity of tests used to assess executive functions. This study used a new virtual reality assessment of executive functions known as JEF (the Jansari asse…
Learning from Evidence in a Complex World Journal Article Policies to promote public health and welfare often fail or worsen the problems they are intended to solve. Evidence-based learning should prevent such policy resistance, but learning in complex systems is often weak and slow. Complexity hinders our ability to discover the delayed and distal impacts of interventions, generating unintended “side effects.”
Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes Journal Article Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generat…
Long-term effects of inhaled nicotine Journal Article Tobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs. In spite of extensive research on the health effects of tobacco smoking, the substances in tobacco smoke exerting these negative health effects are not completely known. Nicotine is the substance giving the subjective pleasure of smoking as well as inducing addiction.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition Dramatically Increases the Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine in Rats Journal Article Nicotine is the major neuroactive compound of tobacco, which has, by itself, weak reinforcing properties. It is known that levels of the enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and MAO-B are reduced in the platelets and brains of smokers and that substances, other than nicotine, present in tobacco smoke have MAO-inhibitory activities.
Most smokeless tobacco use is not a causal gateway to cigarettes: using order of product use to evaluate causation in a national US sample Journal Article AIMS: To evaluate non-causal and causal patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and cigarette use; to assess the prevalence of “non-gateway” and possible “gateway” patterns of SLT use.
Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices Journal Article A wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking.
Nicotine Addiction Journal Article This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions.
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes Journal Article Introduction: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and
Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment Journal Article Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Noncombustible Tobacco Product Advertising: How Companies Are Selling the New Face of Tobacco Journal Article Background: With declining cigarette sales, increasing restrictions, and recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of cigarettes, there has been a dramatic rise in the marketing of noncombustible tobacco products (NCPs). However, little is known about how NCPs are advertised and to whom.
Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence Journal Article Aims We have demonstrated previously that acute smoking abstinence is associated with lowered reward motivation and impaired response inhibition. This prospective study explores whether these impairments, along with withdrawal-related symptoms, recover over 3 months of sustained abstinence.
Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an Internet survey Journal Article INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: As the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) increases, it is becoming important to find out more about the characteristics of e-cigarette users, why and how they use the product and whether e-cigarettes are used exclusively or in combination with conventional cigarettes. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns and effe…
Patterns of tobacco-related mortality among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression Journal Article Abstract Even though individuals with psychiatric conditions have a prevalence of smoking approximately 2–4 times greater than the general population, surprisingly little evidence exists to inform an assessment of the full range of tobacco-related mortality in such populations.
Peering through the Mist: Systematic Review of What the Chemistry of Contaminants in Electronic Cigarettes Tells Us about Health Risks Article-Journal Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally recognized as a safer alternative to combusted tobacco products, but there are conflicting claims about the degree to which these products warrant concern for the health of the vapers (e-cigarette users). This paper reviews available data on chemistry of aerosols and liquids of elec…
Rapid Nicotine Clearance is Associated with Greater Reward and Heart Rate Increases from Intravenous Nicotine Journal Article The ratio of nicotine metabolites (trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (3HC) to cotinine) correlates with nicotine clearance. In previous studies, high nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) predicted poor outcomes for smoking cessation treatment with nicotine patch. The underlying mechanisms that associate NMR with treatment outcomes have not been fully elucidated.
Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles Journal Article Abstract The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we obtained mo…
Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Article-Journal Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (commonly referred as e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor taken into lungs.
Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: Impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide Journal Article Background:   Debate exists over the scientific evidence for claims that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have no health-related ramifications. This study aimed to assess whether using an e-cigarette for 5 min has an impact on the pulmonary function tests and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) of healthy adult smokers.
Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 Journal Article Teen smoking continues to decline in 2013 ANN ARBOR—Smoking among teens in grades 8, 10 and 12 continued to decline in 2013—apositive trend since most smokers begin their habit in adolescence—according to the latest survey results from the nationwide Monitoring the Future study.
Tests for the Chronic Toxicity of Propylexe Glycol and Triethylene Glycol on Monkeys and Rats by Vapor Inhalation and Oral Administration Journal Article With a view to determining the safety of employing the vapors of propylene glycol and triethylene glycol in atmospheres inhabited by human beings, monkeys and rats were exposed continuously to high concentrations of these vapors for periods of 12 to 18 months. Equal numbers of control animals were maintained under physically similar condit…
The effects of cigarette smoking and abstinence on auditory verbal learning Journal Article Smoking has been associated with both enhanced and impaired cognitive performance; across a variety of domains, but there is limited evidence demonstrating the effects on verbal learning.
The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition Journal Article Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition.
The Fourth Pillar of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Harm Reduction and the International Human Right to Health Journal Editorial Article Tobacco harm reduction as a human right Approximately one-quarter of all lifelong smokers will die in middle age (between 35 and 69) as a result of smoking and the authors of this 2006 paper (PDF) urge tobacco harm reduction to be viewed as a human right.
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 1 Journal Article Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of action of chemical aerial disinfectants reveals that the rapid killing action which is obtained cannot be accounted for by a collision process between germicidal aerosol particles and the air-borne bacteria. However, a mechanism involving condensation of germicide molecules in the vapor state on to the bacteria-containing droplets results in a theoretical ve…
THE MECHANISM OF AERIAL DISINFECTION BY GLYCOLS AND OTHER CHEMICAL AGENTS - 2 Journal Article The effectiveness of any compound as an aerial germicide depends upon the extent of condensation of its vapor on air-suspended bacteria, and on the rate at which the resulting concentration of germicide can produce death of the microorganisms. The properties of any compound conducive to production of the highest rate of kill of air-borne microorganisms by means of the smallest possible concentratio…
Tobacco harm reduction: How rational public policy could transform a pandemic Journal Article Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Tobacco Harm Reduction: How Rational Public Policy Could Transform a Pandemic Article-Journal Nicotine, at the dosage levels smokers seek, is a relatively innocuous drug commonly delivered by a highly harmful device, cigarette smoke. An intensifying pandemic of disease caused or exacerbated by smoking demands more effective policy responses than the current one: demanding that nicotine users abstain.
Use of a liquid nicotine delivery product to promote smoking cessation Journal Article Despite access to various pharmacotherapies and counseling support to aid cessation, smokers typically demonstrate quit rates below 50%. This report describes the results of a Phase 2a study exploring the efficacy of a liquid nicotine delivery system as an aid to smoking cessation assessed after 12 weeks of therapy. PMID: 20334673